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White mustard

The white mustard (Sinapis alba) is an annual oil plant belonging to the mustard family. It is able to free hardly soluble phosphates. It can be grown in any types of ground with the pH from very acidulous to alkaline. The seeds are sprouted at the 3°C temperature. The seedlings are able to withstand short-term freezing up to -5°C. The white mustard is a nectariferous plant. The Rhapsody sort of white mustard was included into the State Register in 2004 and it is recommended for cultivation within the whole territory of Russia. This heavy yielder combines high productivity and high quality of seeds. It is characterized by high stability to the principal diseases and pests. It is stable to beating down and falling of seeds. The seeds sprout at low temperature and the seedlings are able to withstand short-term freezing up to -5°C. Grounds with almost any kind of Ph are suitable for cultivation. This sort may be used as green manure or feeder. It may also be used as a nectariferous plant as it is freely accessed by bees in order to collect blossom and nectar. 55 — 100kg of honey can be collected from one hectare. The Rhapsody sort is used for production of high-quality oil and sprats. High ether and oil content allows application of the mustard for the needs of the pharmaceutical industry in order to produce various drugs. Mustard is often used as a supporting plant for vetch, pea, lens and other legumes. It may also be added to winter crops in order to improve snow retention on fields located in the steppe regions.

It doesnt take long for mustard to come up and grow. The green mass is cut when the leaves are fresh and juicy. It is recommended to cut them before blooming as otherwise in case of late harvesting leaves will start to die away so the organic mass will be reduced and the mature leaves will litter the bed. Basically the period between mustard seeding and bedding amounts to 55–70 days (8–10 weeks). It should be bedded into the ground or heeled in so it will be rotten by the autumn. The seeding rate amounts to 2.5 — 4g/m2. The depth of bedding amounts to 8-15cm. After bedding the ground should be flattened with flippers. The next plant shall be planted not less than 3–4 after bedding of the green mass.

What is also important is the phytosanitary effect of mustard as it leads to decrease of the incidence of such diseases as blight, rhizoctonia disease, tuber scab and seedling diseases (also relating to potato). Mustard also decreases the content of wireworm in the ground. The mustard shall be seeded in the late autumn so the wireworm wintering conditions will be deteriorated and it will lead to its death. The mustard seeding rate shall be increased up to 5g/m2 in order to increase its efficiency.

Seeding of green manures belonging to the mustard family cannot be performed simultaneously with other vegetables belonging to the mustard family (cabbage, bird rape, radish, garden radish, mustard, etc.) as they may be affected by the same diseases and pests.

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